Category Archives: Light Bulb General Information

This category contains general information about current and future light bulbs including discussion on market trends. It provides consumer information and thoughts regarding the selection and practical use of the different light bulbs.

An Introduction to DMX Lighting Control

DMX1DMX lighting control is all about taking your lighting experience to another whole new level. It has revolutionized the lighting industry with intelligent technological advancements.

In the past, intelligent lighting domain was a preserve for those considered professionals. However, with the development and design of more affordable electrical, electronic, plus computer control systems, superior good lighting effects can now be realized.

Understanding Intelligent Lighting?

DMX2Intelligent lighting comprises unique elements that can be controlled remotely. At an intricate level, this might involve moving heads, patterns & colors. And on a simple level, only the color can be controlled with RGB LEDs or a dimmer. In short, intelligent lighting is amazing.

Integrating a controller, DMX lighting makes it possible for you to simultaneously send signals to multiple devices, sequencing them automatically with a pre-determined view or operating the effects live on-the-fly. If you have watched the popular Halloween house lights video set to thriller, you should know that it utilizes DMX intelligent lighting control.

So, What Is DMX?

DMX is a digital, unidirectional serial protocol without error checking capabilities. It’s very reliable but prone to interference, something which makes it unfit for hazardous effects like pyrotechnics. For instance, a stray signal/electrical interference might cause a flame tower. Like many digital cables, the quality of produced signals decreases over long distances & repeaters can be incorporated into the lighting system to increase the distance/split the signal using Ethernet switches. The DMX cabling itself comprises 2 shielded twisted pairs. Technically, 5-pin DMX wiring should be used, but certain manufacturers have designed 3-pin versions that can run over conventional microphone XLR cabling.

Are Your Lighting Fixtures DMX Capable?

DMX3A DMX-capable lighting fixture should have more than two XLR connectors (which must be marked as DMX IN / OUT) and a way to set the DMX address (i.e. either small switches arranged in a row or a control panel). Note that the XLR connectors can have three or five pins, but it depends on the manufacturer. Just refer to the fixture manual to establish the number of DMX channels the light uses.

Will your lighting system work with DMXIS or Even D-PRO?

DMX supported fixtures can be controlled using any DMX software /console. So, whether yours is a dimmer pack, a moonflower, or even a scanner, it can perfectly work with DIMXIS. Moreover, moving head, laser, and LED spot can work well with DMXIS. In fact, DMXIS & D-PRO are capable of controlling all lights, provided they have DMX connectors.

What About Sound Activated Light?

DMX4However, “sound activated” lights with no XLR connectors cannot be controlled by DMX. LED lighting has undergone massive technological advancements that have completely revolutionized the lighting industry, offering improved performance and highly efficient lighting options both for residential & commercial applications. The 0-10V and the DALI (digital addressable lighting interfaces) dimming modules are two unique components that provide true innovations for various dimming control projects. Working alongside these elements is the DMX control (digital multiplex), an important component often utilized in color mixing applications.

 

Why Light Output Should Be Measured In Lumens & Not Watts

Lumens vs. Watts1As light emitting diodes become the standard lighting, it is important to understand the dissimilarities between watts and lumens, as well as how to establish the right amount of lumens for achieving optimum atmosphere in a space.

Lumens vs. Watts

Let’s get to understand what lumens are: The lumen is an international scientific measurement standard for the quantity of light generated by a specific light source or its measured brightness. On the other hand, Watts measure the required amount of energy necessary for operating a light source.

The only challenge here is that there isn’t a mathematical formula to convert watts to lumens, like in converting kilograms (Kgs) to miles.

Think Lumens, and Not Watts

Lumens vs. Watts2The advent of LED technology (which is more energy efficient) has changed the lighting landscape. It has rendered the use of conventional bulbs meaningless. Unfortunately, this rapid change in technology has made the old-fashioned “Watt” light measurement less able to accurately indicate the bulb brightness. This does not allow for the different efficiency in conventional types of lights (i.e. filament bulbs, halogen & fluorescent) and LEDs.  This is why light output should be measured in Lumens and not watts.

Thus, the energy industry is now opting to use a more stable as well as widely-accurate unit to measure light intensity commonly known as Lumens.

Understanding Lumens

Lumens (abbreviated as lm) is a measure of light emitted by a lamp/ bulb (but it must be visible with the naked eye). The greater the Lumens number, the brighter the light.

Understanding Watts

On the other hand, watts don’t measure the brightness, rather the amount of electricity used.

Bulb Luminous Efficacy

Lumens vs. Watts3The effectiveness of bulbs is expressed in terms of the lumen-to-watt ratio. This is the number of lumens produced for each and every watt consumed.

The rate of conversion of watts to lumens by bulbs varies and is dependent on the technology used. Lighting bulbs producing more L/P (i.e. lumens-per-watt) are cheaper to run since they generate more light and use less power.

LEDs possess the highest L/W ratio—what this means is that they are capable of generating a higher amount of light (from the bulb in question) for relatively little energy.

Longer-Lasting and Energy-Saving LEDs

The introduction of LEDs tremendously reduced power parameter requirement for buyers. This is because you’ll be getting a bulb fixture that’ll cost you 90% less as far as your electricity bills are concerned. What’s more, these bulbs are likely to last longer. Producing less heat as compared to incandescent bulbs helps LEDs to realize a 50,000 hr. lifespan.

So, when shopping around for a replacement lighting bulb, think of lighting fixture that’s brighter, longer-lasting, as well as more energy-efficient—the LEDs.

Lumens vs. Watts4

Lumens vs. Candelas

The two measurements can be confusing and are similar. However, they have subtle differences. Lumens are used to measure the amount of light emitted (i.e. the total visible amount of lights from a given source). This is also known as its luminous flux. On the other hand, candelas are used to measure the luminous intensity. It is also important to note that candelas are more predominant in America, while the EU prefer lumens.

IP Ratings Explained

IP Ratings Explained111The IP ratings (an abbreviation for International Protection ratings) is a two-numbered representation for protection against solids and water. The first digit represents the protection rating against certain solid foreign objects (such as dust) while the second digit is the actual protection against water.

Understanding IP rating for lights

The IP rating (Ingress Protection) is an internationally recognized method utilized to describe and measure the level of protection of electrical appliances against water and other technical components. It’s always advisable to choose the right IP rating for your exterior lights plus ceiling fans so as to prevent hazardous accidents.

For enclosures, the emblematic “waterproof” IP ratings include IP67, IP66 & IP65 enclosures.  The table below explains the meaning of each of these ratings and how they’re arrived at.

IP Ratings Explained1

IP Rating The actual Protection offered Description of the offered protection Test Method
IP65 Enclosures These ones can protect against any water jets Water entry is projected by a nozzle (which is 6.3 mm long) against enclosures from all directions and must not have any harmful effect. Test duration: The test takes about 15 minutesWater volume: It requires about 12.5 liters of water per minutePressure: The test requires a pressure of 30 kPa at a 3m-distance
IP66 Enclosures This one can offer protection against water jets Water is projected in dominant jets (i.e. a 12.5 mmNozzle) against enclosures from all directions and shouldn’t have any harmful effects. Test duration: It requires about 3 minutesWater volume: The test requires 100 liters of water per minutePressure: The test must be done at a pressure of 100 kPa and at a 3m
IP67 Enclosures These ratings can protect against an Immersion of up to 1 m It protects entrance of large volume water and when the enclosure in question is immersed in water(but under pre-defined under pre-defined pressure and time conditions) Test duration is 30 minutes The immersion should be at a depth of more than 1 m measured from the  bottom of the device and more than 15 cm measured from the top of the device

 

IK Rating: What is it?

IK ratings denote the European standard EN — the equivalent of IEC 62262 (2002) standards. This represents an international numeric classification concerning degrees of protection by enclosures for all electrical appliances against external mechanical forces/impacts.

IP rating in electrical appliances

The IP Code is an International Protection Marking that interprets the IP code as an Ingress Protection Marking. It also classifies & rates it as the level protection against intrusion, dust, unintentional contact, as well as water.

IP ratings brief history

IP Ratings Explained1111111IP ratings were first developed by the International Electro-technical Commission. They are mostly used in Europe & Asia, but find some adherents in parts of North America.  Since they’re international standards, testing and certification is done by the TUV and not UL.  Note: IP ratings were developed to address harsh environments and not ultraviolet rays (UV) protection. Thus, engineers should incorporate additional materials that offer UV protection.

Architectural Lighting for Buildings

Architectural Lighting 1Light defines space. And architecture lighting is an art that entails the masterly, correct, as well as magnificent consolidation of masses in form of light. The human eye is attracted by light. Simple design additions can enhance the effectiveness of any building, turning it into a happier, healthier, & productive environment.

Architectural Lighting & Daylight

The largest impact on lighting & design is derived from the buildings’ architectural orientation and massing. Other key players include ceiling height plus the section profiles, which influence the availability of daylight in any building. Naturally, a south facing orientation, slender floor plates, raised ceilings, in addition to open divisions tend to allow more usable light into a building, thus correspondingly reducing the amount of electric lighting used. That’s why you should bring lighting designers onto any architectural project team early enough to bring an impact on the massing decisions.

Illuminating the Actual Building Architecture

Architectural Lighting2Architectural lighting is meant to illuminate your room’s actual architecture, including walls and ceilings. It’s meant to create a balanced, indirect, lighting environment that enlivens a room’s architecture. Exciting interiors, such as brick /stone veneers can go a long way in enhancing your home’s architectural lighting features.

Architectural Lighting: The Importance

Lighting can help inject more value into any architectural building. It plays a key role in the overall architecture of any building. Whether you light your building and structure naturally or artificially, you should endeavor to do it right—-since lighting allows people to see and appreciate your buildings’ beauty.

Lighting also brings an emotional value of architecture to any building. From those occupying the building to the visitors, the right architectural lighting will let your building sparkle with class and elegance. Whether yours is daytime or artificial lighting, the right design can draw attention to your textures, space, and colors, helping your lighting scheme achieve its purpose.

Think Aesthetics, Function, and Efficiency

To achieve a successful lighting-architecture balance, it’s vital to take into consideration:

  • Aesthetics
  • Function
  • Efficiency

Aesthetics

With aesthetics, designers tend to focus on the impact of emotional balance (i.e. the lighting- architecture balance). It helps people feel different when they’re in and out of the building. Ideal for retail locations; this exterior lighting aspect will help draw attention and create an everlasting impact.

Function

Function is another vital aspect that shouldn’t be overlooked. As much as you’ll want the light to look in a certain way, you should also ensure that it serves the purpose – to help people see. Illuminate spaces to guarantee the safety of the occupants who navigate through the building.

Efficiency

SONY DSCEfficiency is another key aspect architectures and interior designers should seriously consider. Create a breathtaking light layout that’s incredibly energy-efficient. And the easiest way to go about this is by installing the LEDs as opposed to fluorescent lighting—since LEDs are far much more energy efficient than other lighting sources.

The Three Elemental Types of Light

Invest in these three “elemental types of light”. They are the heartbeat of any modern lighting design.

  1. Focal glow – Also known as task lighting, focal glow points out vital elements and help draw attention to spaces. They are directive in nature, creating brighter centers. Bonus, they can effectively highlight the important element.
  2. Ambient luminescence – Also referred to as general/ambient lighting, ambient luminescence is the background lighting, which illuminates the entire space. Mostly, it should be uniform. Moreover, it shouldn’t cast shadows.
  3. Play of brilliants – Play of brilliant (accent lighting) is a dynamic & colorful architectural lighting that aims at stimulating people as well as their emotions. It excites peoples’ optic nerves, which helps stimulate their body and spirit. This awakens the curiosity and sharpens the wit.

Buyers Guide on LED Bulbs

LED Bulbs 1LEDs bulbs, an abbreviation of light-emitting diodes bulbs, are kinds of light sources that exhibit a high level of efficiency.  They are different from other conventional types of bulbs like incandescent & halogen lamps. Their lifespan is superior and they consume less energy and emit little amount heat.

LED bulbs: How long do they last?

A high-quality LED bulb can last for at least 20,000 hours, and serve you for around 50,000 hours. For comparison purposes, incandescent bulbs and CFLs have a lifespan of 1,000 hours 9,000 hours respectively. With consistent daily use—8 hours a day—a good quality LED bulb could serve you for about 17 years!

LED bulbs: The Advantages over CFLs

  • Durable: LED bulbs are more durable, lasting about 5- 10 years.
  • Efficiency: LED bulbs are highly energy efficient. They consume half of the electricity that conventional bulbs use.
  • Environment: LED bulbs are Eco-Friendly. They don’t use mercury like the CFLs.
  • Heat dissipation: The heat dissipation of LED bulbs is lower than the conventional ones. Their bulb filament is fairly cool and there is no heat around the bulb

Top 9 Factors to Consider

LED Bulbs2Lighting is an important aspect of any home. So, doing it right will uplift your home. However, before purchasing LED bulbs, you should consider vital factors, including:

1. Fitting

Fitting is an important aspect of LED bulbs. Thus, you should always select the bulb that has the right fitting. For instance, if you’re replacing an old bulb, take it to the store. However, if it’s impossible to take it with you, have the fitting reference number and share it with the store technicians.

2. Cost

Don’t be scared by the upfront (initial) cost of LED bulbs. In the long run, LEDs could save you big.

3. Note Color Rendering Index

The CRI is used to indicate the accuracy of colors under the LED bulb’s light. The CRI, which ranges from 0-100, is high during the day (i.e.  100). Recommended CRI for interior lighting is 80. To compare LED bulbs, observe the CRI of different bulbs with similar Kelvin temperature.

4. Brightness

LED Bulbs ReadingWhen purchasing LED bulbs, ensure you understand your brightness needs. Therefore, purchase one that quenches your brightness thirst.

5. LED Lamp Voltage

LED bulbs come in different voltage ratings. The voltage ratings vary from 6V- 240V. For searchlights, low voltage LED bulbs are preferred. However, 120-240 V LED bulbs are ideal for normal room lighting.

6. Shape & Direction of Light

The shape of your LED light bulb determines the style of the room plus its holder. So, depending on your style, you can either choose Omnidirectional, Flood reflector, or even Flame tip LED bulbs.

Finding the right LED bulb shape is part of your room’s aesthetics. So, get the right brand with the right characteristics. For instance, a golf LED bulb will spread its light in 360-degrees, making it ideal in golf courts.

7. Quality matters

Ensure that the quality of the LED bulb you buy is superior. You’ll not want to buy something and after a few days, it’s spoilt.

8. Think lumens, not watts

Don’t purchase your bulb by the number of watts. With the new technologies focusing on energy-efficiency, LED bulbs can now emit the same light amount for less power.

The Bottom-line: Lighting Your Home

LED Bulbs garden 5Most living rooms require general, ambient LED lighting complemented by unique task-explicit accent lighting.

Thus, getting ambient lighting for your room will radiate an entirely comfortable amount of brightness. Always ensure that all your rooms are supplied with a central ambient LED lighting source.

Additionally, install a task LED lighting system that is easily switched on & off –depending on your preferences & needs. For instance, bulbs for reading & sewing should have an elaborate control system. Moreover, don’t forget to include an explicit on and off switch or bulbs that give extra light over your kitchen benches as well as bathroom mirrors.

Accent lighting, when done right, are powerful at emphasizing paintings, gardens or house plants, and even collectibles.

Lighting Building Exteriors

Lighting Design 1You have pulled out numerous stops–just to make that house, building, backyard and its surrounding of yours look superb. So, why let all your labored work go in vain when, with a glide of a switch plus some strategically positioned landscape exterior lights, you can confidently roll back the dimness and let the display do the talking?

When done right, exterior lightings can turn your environment into a bliss. They help highlight any home’s architectural features—something which will obviously draw attention to the backyard.

Whether you are looking for architectural or even security outdoor lighting, the right systems will definitely provide that visual oomph in addition to a safety boost to your home or business building.

Security Is a Key Factor

There are so many reasons that can prompt you to light your outdoor area. The most obvious one being safety and security. The lighting requirements for a parking lot is dependent on traffic. However, this shouldn’t worry you because recommended illumination levels can be obtained from the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES). Carefully observe its suggestions to avoid possible insecurity issues.

Safety: Safety means staying safe from tripping over an obstacle or walking into a tree and the required light levels for this are actually very low. One can see quite well in the moonlight and that’s just about 0.02 foot-candles.

Security: On the other hand, security refers to protection from people and threats. To achieve a considerable sense of security for your property, you’ll need to boost outdoor artificial lighting. If you are in the garage or parking area, you need to know if someone is plotting to mug you. You also need facial recognition to choose between fight and flight. And picking such visual cues requires an illumination level of 3 foot-candles. A safe outdoor is very important to any home, building or organization, so be keen to provide sufficient lighting in the exteriors.

 The Power of Aesthetics

Lighting Design 2The other reason for enhancing your outdoor lighting is aesthetics. Remember, lighting is an important feature of attracting renters to your property. So, it should be taken seriously. You want to ensure that your building looks open and inviting, just like a community beacon.

Exterior Spaces Require Attention

Illuminating outdoor spaces entails paying special attention to light fixture position, intensity, and color in addition to duration. When properly combined, these factors will surely realize the right lighting design that is capable of achieving safety, efficiency in terms of energy consumption, and cost reduction.

Exterior Lighting: The Golden Advice

Exterior lighting is effective at giving dimension to any building plus the surrounding landscape. However, they are not all about flooding your surfaces with light. You should highlight small. This means highlighting a few structural parts with a vivid spotlight. Showering the walls with twinkles of light can create a dramatic effect, giving the exterior a different appearance at dusk. However, when designing your exterior lighting fixtures, consider the texture, brick & stone color and steelwork.

Exterior Lighting – The Power of Going Architectural

Rather than simply lighting your exterior space with ordinary bulbs, use architectural lighting to brighten it up and add some elegance. But, take caution not to create glare or light pollution. Also, consider other users (for instance those inside) since badly placed lighting can cause glare-related problems to other building users.

Façade lighting: Making Non-engineering Decisions

Façade lighting Façade lighting 3Façade lighting is not about numbers. Of course, engineers will compute the vertical luminance, luminance plus uniformity values for your building—however, that isn’t the prime goal.

You need to make numerous non-engineering decisions. For instance, determine if you are intending to let the building blend in /stand out. Are you after a subtle or “in the face” effect? Which colors do you want?

Making your building look “wow” is down to your aesthetic judgment. In case you are unsure about your decisions, consult an exterior lighting designer, an architect, or planner about your target effect. Remember, it’s always better to highlight certain parts of the building as opposed to flooding the entire façade with uniformed light.

 

Color Characteristics of LEDs

LED color 4There’s an array of different LEDs that are available in the lighting market today. The diverse LED characteristics comprise of light color or radiation wavelength and light intensity among other features.

These color characteristics are as a result of an assortment of factors during the manufacturing process. Factors such as semiconductor make-up, fabrication technology used, and encapsulation are also important in determining the LED color appearances.

Understanding LED colors

Color is a fundamental feature of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Initially, there were a limited number of colors available for these fixtures. You could only find red LEDs.

However, as technology advanced, there have been significant improvements in LED materials and colors.

Color Characteristics of LEDs: Color Temperature

One important aspect of color appearance is color temperature, which exemplifies how cool/bluish or how warm/yellowish technically white light appears. CCT Correlated Color Temperature (abbreviated as CCT), is actually a metric correlating the source of light appearance to a pre-heated theoretic dark/black body appearance. As a black-hued body gets hotter, it becomes red, orange, white, and ultimately blue. The CCT value of a light source, provided in Kelvin (K), represents the temperature at which a hot black body closely matches the light source color under investigation. It symbolizes the color of emitted light and not that of illuminated objects.

What is Color Rendering Index (CRI)?

Metrics Color representation has numerous distinct forms, including reference based systems, gamut based systems, and systems which are built upon sophisticated color appearance models.

CRI refers to a measure of fidelity (that’s how ‘true’ a certain light source is when related to a reference source), but it doesn’t address the issue of color appeal and discrimination.

Chromaticity and LED Colors

LED colors1Chromaticity refers to an objective interpretation of the quality of color irrespective of its luminance. It consists of two distinct parameters, often described as colorfulness (s) and hue (h). For a specified CCT, a light source with a positive Duv value has a chromaticity which falls above the locus of the blackbody (appearing slightly greenish), while a source featuring a negative Duv value has a chromaticity which falls below the locus the blackbody (appearing slightly pinkish).

The Influence of LED voltage drops

The LED voltage drop often lies between 2 and 4 volts. The actual voltage that occurs across the two terminals is highly dependent on the type of LED/materials used and influences the color of LED in question.

As expected, the voltage curve of an LED broadly resembles that of a forward diode characteristic. But once the diode is switched on, the voltage becomes relatively flat for various forward current levels.

LED Characteristics: The Summary

The following table gives a summarized insight concerning LED color characteristics.

Wavelength Range In NM Color Of the LED Voltage(V) at 20MA The Type of Material
Below 400 UV(Ultraviolent) 3.1 to 4.4 AIN, AlGaN, AlGalnP
400 to 450 Violet 2.8 to 4.0 GaP,AlGalnP
450 to 500 Blue 2.5 to 3.7 lnGaN
500 to 570 Green 1.9 to 4.0 GaP, AlGalnP
570 to 590 Yellow 2.1 to 2.2 GaAsP, AlGalnP
590 to 610 Orange or Amber 2.0 to 2.1 GaAsP, AlGalnP
610 to 760 Red 1.6 to 2.0 AlGaAs, GaAsP, AlGalnP

 

Below 760 Infrared Below 1.9 GaAs, AlGaAs

 

Besides LED color, the following are other major LED specifications:

  • Light intensity value( denoted as Iv)
  • Current vs. voltage specification
  • Reverse voltage
  • Angle of view

LED Specifications for Operational Life

LED colors2LED’s light intensity doesn’t diminish with time. What this implies is that LEDs have a specific operational life. This specification helps determine the application of different kinds of LEDs. LED specifications are determined by the following formulas.

L70% = The time taken for a 70 percent illumination (this is also known as lumen maintenance)

L50% = The time taken for a 50 percent illumination (also known as lumen maintenance)

Note: According to LED standards, your LEDs shouldn’t exhibit any major shift in chromaticity.

These figures’ rationale is that 70 percent lumen maintenance is equated to a 30 percent light output reduction. This’s an approximate threshold figure required to detect to gradual light output reductions.

A Guide to LUX Levels

LUX 1Light Level, also referred to as Illuminance, represents the amount of light that is measured on a surface (which is plane). Or, it can be described as the total luminous flux incident that strikes on a plane surface. It is measured per unit area and is commonly known as LUX.

Understanding LUX

LUX, also called DIALux is increasingly becoming popular in the modern world. You can now plan in DIALux with great luminaires from the world’s most renowned manufacturers and enjoy ultimate freedom in the lighting design process.

Benefits of LUX

Featuring professional light planning, LUX is extremely simple and effective. It utilizes the latest luminaire data and state-of-the-art software that’s always available for free. The colored light scenes with light emitting diodes (LED) are energy efficient and guarantee excellent illumination for all your buildings including outdoor spaces.

Recommended LUX Levels

The level of lighting in the outdoor is approximated to be 10,000 lux, albeit on a normal, clear day. However, for a building, especially in the areas that are closer to windows, the LUX levels may possibly be reduced to 1,000 lux. On the other hand, the middle area may register a 25 – 50 lux. Consequently, you may need additional lighting equipment to compensate for these low levels. For precision & detailed works, the level of light may range between 1500 to 2000 lux.

LUX 2In homes- The recommended illumination levels for homes is often 150 lux. The living and dining rooms may work pretty well with about 25 to 50 lux.

Supermarkets- Working spaces like supermarkets and mechanical rooms require light levels of about 750 lux.

In offices- The normal workstation requires 500 LUX while the ADP area and conference rooms require 500 LUX and 300LUX respectively. The auditorium requires 150-200 LUX while the training room and internal corridors should be supplied with 500 LUX and 200 LUX respectively.

The table below represents the light levels for different workspaces.

 

Activity

Illumination

(Lux, lumen/m2)

Public areas featuring dark surroundings

recommended

20-50

Warehouses, theaters, homes, archives

150

Simple orientation meant for short visits

50-100

Working areas involving occasional visual tasks

100-150

Easy classes

250

Showrooms, normal office work, a study library, PC works

500

Detailed drawing and mechanical work, operation theaters

1,000

Supermarkets, office landscapes

750

Performance of prolonged & exacting visual tasks

5000-10000

Performance of extremely special visual activities of very low contrast & small size

10000-20000

 

Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Illumination

The effectiveness of illumination is usually affected by several factors, including light quantity & quality, contrast, amount of flicker, shadows, and intensity of glare. To optimize illumination in security, emergency, and safety situations, consider adjusting each factor differently. Lighting standards also play an important role in the design, installation, durability, and efficient distribution of illumination.

Measuring and stimulating Light Level – Illuminance

Illuminance is measured in foot candles (ftcd, fc, fcd) or lux (in the metric SI system). A foot candle is actually one lumen of light density per square foot; one lux is one lumen per square meter.

•        1 lux = 1 lumen / sq. meter = 0.0001 phot = 0.0929 foot candle (ftcd, fcd)

•        1 phot = 1 lumen / sq. centimeter = 10000 lumens / sq. meter = 10000 lux

•        1 foot candle (ftcd, fcd) = 1 lumen / sq. ft. = 10.752 lux

Calculating Illumination

Illumination is calculated using the formula = Ll Cu LLF / Al (1). In this formula, I denotes illumination (measured in lux, i.e. lumen per m2), Ll represents lumens/ lamp (i.e. lumen), Cu is the coefficient of utilization, while LLF is light loss factor and Al is the area/ lamp (measured in m2).

Light Planning: The Steps

Light planning is a five-step process. The actual process involves:

  • Planning objective analysis
  • Planning conditions analyses
  • Overall planning
  • Detailed planning
  • Documentation

Understanding Glare

Glare can be categorized into two groups: discomfort and disability glare. The level of discomfort glare can be measured by determining the glare index in accordance to the UGR method. This is often graded on a scale, which ranges between 13 and 28 where the greater the glare index the greater the degree of glare. The smallest variation in the glare index designating a significant difference is three.

Reflections from reflective glare or materials can usually be avoided by adopting the following strategies:

·         Choosing convenient luminaire positioning

·         Using materials for all reflective surfaces

·         Selecting fixture with effective screening and low luminous intensity

·         Picking out luminaires with a bigger surface area

·         Choosing light colors for your ceilings and walls

Balance is key

LUX3A well-balanced luminance is essential to boost visual clarity, effectiveness of the ocular functions of the eye, and contrast sensitivity. You should always avoid high luminance which can cause glare, intense luminance contrasts that may cause visual tiredness, and low luminance contrasts, which trigger a staid atmosphere that doesn’t stimulate.

New Ideas on Lighting Design

Lighting Design 1Modern lighting design is all about incorporating ambiance, task as well as accent lighting. Ambient will provide your home with overall illumination while the task lighting will be responsible for directing light to specific work zones. On the other hand, accent lighting will help highlight explicit objects.

However, within these basic requirements exists tons of new lighting ideas. So, whether you are looking for something fun, or want something a little bit subdued, there’re virtually endless new lighting ideas for each and every home/room.

Go for A Robust Assortment

Do a clever mix of different lighting types and strategically place them at different locations in your room if you want to create a proper, layered, and robust lighting scheme.

What About Two-in-One

Use two dissimilar types of overhead (also called ambient) lighting. This adds elegance to your living room. For instance, include pot lights (which help provide the bulk of light and spread it across the entire ceiling) and a suspended transitional fixture to emphasize your living room’s seating area.

Multiple Fixtures Can Be Incredible

When it comes to a large living room, it’s always better to go for pot lights– a single overhead fixture might be insufficient. However, if you aren’t into recessed lighting, you can hang multiple fixtures all through the room. But keep it simple and go for fixtures featuring clean silhouettes. Suspend them on a grid, and not to any random spot.

Ceiling Accent Brings Class

Lighting Design 3Think outside of the box and light around the edge of your ceiling to achieve your dream accent light plus create a unique detail. This will accentuate the unique architectural niceties of your ceiling and breathe some aura of elegance to your living room.

Consider an Nice Arc

Don’t have ceiling lights? Well, don’t worry! There is a solution. Just design a central source of light featuring an arc-like floor lamp

Sculptural Sconces

Make a statement by embracing exceptional sconces. But ensure your up-to-date sconces are adjustable, permitting you to adjust the size, and the direction of the light. They provide an exclusive and sculptural element that is capable of setting a contemporary tone for your living space.

Built-In Accent Will Just Kill It

Include an accent lighting fixture into your built-in shelving to highlight special objects as well as accessories. This will immediately draw eyes to your lit-up shelves, creating a bright and exquisite focal wall.

Visual Balance

Visual balance can be tricky. However, it’s very simple. Get a table and floor lamps. Then place them on either side. This will help your guests (who are sited at either side) to receive light equally.

Consider Mix & Match

Lighting Design 4Who said that you must match your lighting sources? Make a bold statement by going the mix and match way. For instance, you can add chandeliers and sconces (which are very classy) to table lamps (which are considered modern). Moreover, you can mix old and new ones to give your living room a sense of character plus personality.

Other ideas

Consider hanging a statement fixture, highlighting the architectural details, think beyond your living room, and trust your instincts.

 

LED Drivers : All You Need To Know

An LED driver refers to an electrical device that regulates the power supply to a string or LED. It responds to the changing needs of the LED device by providing a consistent amount of power as its electrical properties vary with temperature.
IP67 driver
With outputs that are compatible with the electrical features of the LED, a LED driver may offer dimming through pulse width modulation circuits and may include several channels for separate control of various LEDs/LED arrays. Without the right drivers, LED fixtures may become extremely hot and unstable, thus causing poor performance or even permanent failure.

LED Drivers: The Different Types

There are many different types of LED drivers categorized by the output voltage, output current, maximum switching frequency, form of packaging, and supply voltage.

Each channel’s output can range between 250 µA and 50 A, with common chips carrying an output current of 20, 25, and 100 mA per channel. The commonly available voltage sizes are 2.3 to 5.5 V and 3 to 5.5 V. However, you can readily find LED drivers bearing a supply voltage of up to 630 V.

  1. Constant Voltage

Constant voltage LED drivers can be obtained in numerous manufacturing standards and are designed to meet high specifications for quality and efficiency.

  1. Dimmable LED Drivers

By dimming your LED lights, you get the freedom to enjoy different scenes. You can create a romantic atmosphere in the dining room, or establish a spectacular viewing experience for your guests during office presentations. You need a dependable LED driver that meets all electrical requirements if you want to dim your LED lighting system.

Dimmable LED Drivers: Understanding LED Driver Dimmer Controls

LED drivers with dimming capability offer the flexibility of dimming the lights from 0-100% while maintaining color and temperature. Remember, dimming an LED light can also reduce the operating temperature of your fixture, ultimately boosting LED efficacy as well as lamp life.

In the olden days, LEDs and dimmers weren’t always so expedient. But as technology advanced, powerful dimming controls entered the market to add more definition to their performance. To effectively control your LED light intensities, you’ll need to fix a dimmer that’s compatible with the LED driver you intend to use.

3.0-10V Dimming Drivers

LED technology is virtually taking the market by storm. Complimenting a 0-10V dimmer with an already power-efficient LED lighting is not only efficient but also effective. A LED lighting high-quality dimmer (powered by ERP LED driver) can help users save big on costs associated with energy consumption. Moreover, they assume a superior control capability when compared to other lighting applications.

LED Drivers: Their Applications

LED drivers can be used as:

  • Industrial, outdoor, residential, and commercial lighting
  • Automotive interior, tail lights, and portable flashlight
  • Signage and LED backlighting
  • Garden and elevator lighting

LED drivers: How to Select the Right LED Driver

When you’re searching for reliable LED drivers, you should take into consideration several attributes, including Output Voltage, Supply Voltage (-0.3 to 20 V, 2.7 to 5.5 V, and 3 to 5.5), as well as Maximum Switching Frequency ( between 200 Hz and 200GHz). You’ll be able to get the right chip that’s suitable for use as a high-power LED driver, dimmable LED driver, constant current LED driver, RGB driver or 24v LED driver on an integrated circuit or any other circuits that might require such driver chips.